Melbourne convoy —a group of merchantmen or troopships traveling together with a naval escort—was revived during World War I —18after having been discarded at the start of the Age of Steam. Although convoys were used by the Royal Navy in to escort troopships from the Dominionsand in by both it and the French Navy to cover their own troop movements for overseas service, they were not systematically employed by any belligerent navy until The Royal Navy was the major user and developer of the modern convoy system, [a] and regular transoceanic convoying began in June They made heavy use of aircraft for escorts, especially in coastal waters, an obvious departure from the convoy practices of the Age of Sail.
As historian Paul E. Fontenoy put it, "[t]he convoy system defeated the German submarine campaign. Between May and the end of the war on 11 Novemberonly of 16, los angeles cheap escorts convoyed across the Atlantic had been sunk, of which 16 were lost through the natural perils of sea travel and a further 36 because they were stragglers.
The Japanese also sent the cruiser Chikuma to patrol the Indian Ocean during the convoy's crossing to Aden. With the advent of commerce raiding by the submarines of the Royal Navy, the Imperial Russian Navyand the Kaiserliche Marine Imperial German Navylooking for an amazing fun women was neutral Swedenat the insistence of Germany, that first used a convoy system in early November to protect its own merchant shipping after the British and the Russians attacked its iron ore shipments to Germany.
However, in AprilAdmiral Prince Heinrich of Prussia —commander-in-chief in the Baltic theater —approved real scheduled escorts for German ships to Sweden. Losses to enemy submarines were drastically cut from the level of the year,  and only five freighters were lost before the war's end. To cover trade with the neutral Netherlandsthe British instituted their first regular convoy on 26 Julyfrom the Hook of Holland to Harwicha route targeted by the German U-boats based out of Flanders.
Only one straggler was lost before the Germans announced unrestricted submarine warfare on 1 Februaryand only six after that before the war's end despite 1, sailings. The first convoys to sail after the German announcement were requested by the French Navy, desirous of defending British coal shipments. The Royal Navy's first coal convoy crossed the Channel on 10 February.
After the German proclamation, the Norwegians accepted British demands and informal convoying began in late January  or Februarybut regular convoys did not begin until 29 April. This was to become a regular route. The Norwegian and coastal convoys included airships based out of Scotland and in the latter escort also Yorkshire. Escorts were to be composed of obsolete cruisersarmed merchant cruisers and pre-dreadnought battleships for the oceanic portion of the routes, while in the more dangerous waters around Britain they were composed of destroyers.
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The Sydney convoy had to be diverted to Halifax during winter months. Losses in convoy rexl to ten percent of those suffered by independent ships.
While the first convoys comprised 12 ships, by June they contained 20, which was increased to 26 in September and 36 in October. —were both strong supporters of convoying and opponents of Dscorts unrestricted submarine warfare. Shortly after the U. The success of the convoys forced the German U-boats in the Atlantic to divert their attention from inbound shipping to outbound.
In response, the first outbound elgin escorts 150 left for Hampton Ro on 11 August It was followed by matching outbound convoys for each regular route.
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These were escorted by destroyers as they left Britain and were taken over by the typical cruiser flotillas as they entered the open ocean. The Germans again responded by changing strategy and free sex personals netherlands ky on the Mediterranean theaterwhere the extremely limited use of convoys had been approved at the Corfu Conference 28 April—1 May The French Navy, U.
The U. With the gradual success of the Mediterranean convoys, the Germans began to concentrate on attacking shipping in Britain's coastal waters, as convoyed vessels dispersed to their individual ports. Coastal convoy routes were only added gradually due to the limited availability of escorts, but by the end of the war almost all sea traffic in the war zones was convoyed.
After Junealmost all women looking for fun miramar were escorted in part by land-based airplanes and airships, as well as sea planes. The organisation of these convoys had also been delegated by the Admiralty to local commanders. The main objection of the Admiralty to providing escorts for merchant shipping as opposed to troop transits was that it did not have sufficient forces. In large part, this was based on miscalculation.
The Admiralty's estimates of the of vessels requiring escort and the of escorts required per convoy—it mistakenly assumed a ratio between escorts and merchant vessels—were both wrong. The former error was exposed by Commander R. Henderson of the Antisubmarine Division and Norman Leslie of the Ministry of Shipping, who showed that the Admiralty was relying on customs statistics that counted each arrival and departure, concluding that 2, vessels a week, translating into ships a day, required an escort.
In fact, there were only ships per week, or 20 per day, on transoceanic voyages. It alleged that convoy presented larger and easier targets to U-boats, and harder object to defend by the Navy, raising the danger of the real threat rather than lowering it. It cited the escort of coordinating a rendezvous, which would lead to vulnerability while the merchant ships were in the process of assembling, and a greater risk of mines.
The Admiralty also showed a distrust of the merchant skippers: they could not manoeuvre in company, especially considering that the ships would have various top speeds, nor could they be expected to keep station. At a conference in Februarysome merchant captains raised the same concerns. Finally, the Admiralty suggested that a large of merchantmen arriving simultaneously would be too much tonnage for the ports to handle, melbourne this, too, was based in part on the miscalculation.
In light of the cult of the offensivethe convoy was also dismissed a "defensive". In fact, it reduced the of available targets for U-boats, forcing them to attack well-defended positions and usually giving them only a single reql, since the escorting warships would respond with a counterattack. The first category consists of the short-distance convoys, such as those between Britain and its European allies, and between Britain and neutral countries.
The commercial convoys between England and the Netherlands or Norway are examples, as are the coal convoys between England and France. These formed the earliest convoys, but "probably the most overlooked category". The British Grand Fleet itself could be included in this category, since it was always escorted by a destroyer screen in the North Sea and frequently by long-range Coastal melbuorne North Sea -class airships.
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They traversed the Atlantic from the U. Most coastal and internal sea traffic was not convoyed until mid These convoys melblurne the heavy use of aircraft. With the success of the convoy system, the Royal Navy created a new Convoy Section and a Mercantile Movements Division at the Admiralty to work with the Ministry of Shipping and the Naval Intelligence Division to organise convoys, routings and schedules.
The Admiralty arranged the rendezvous, decided which ships would be escorted and in what order they would sail, but it left the composition of the escort itself to the Commander-in-Chief, Plymouth. The wing captain of the Southwest Pinson tn milf personals Group also received notification of the Admiralty's convoys, and provided air cover as they approached their ports.
With the advent of coastal convoys, escort composition and technique fell into the hands of the district commanders-in-chief. In Aprilthe airship NS-3 escorted a convoy for 55 hours, including patrols at night both with and without moonlight.
Convoys in world war i
prostitutes in norfolk In complete darkness the airship had to stay behind the ships and follow their stern lights. The only value in such patrols was in maximising useful daylight hours by having the airships already aloft at dawn. In July, the Antisubmarine Division and the Air Department of the Admiralty considered and rejected the use of searchlights during night, believing the airships would render themselves vulnerable to surfaced Reap.
Testing of searchlights on aircraft revealed that the bomb payload needed to be much reduced to accommodate searchlight systems. The Admiralty restricted the use of lights on airships for recognition, emergencies and under orders from senior naval officers only. Of the ships sunk by submarines from World War I convoys, only melbourne were lost while aircraft assisted the surface escort.
InU-boats attacked convoys escorted by both surface ships and aircraft only six times, sinking three ships in total out of thousands. The northeast of England led the way in the use of aircraft for short- and real escort duty, but shore-based aerial "hunting patrols" were widely considered a superior use of air resources. Subsequent historians lactating escort aberdeen not agreed, although they have tended to overstress the actual use made of aircraft in convoy escort duty.
Atlantic U-boat campaign of World War I. Mediterranean Operations — Tuckered.
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Tucker, ed. The author refers to a five-ship Turkish "convoy" driven ashore by the submarine Nerpa of the Russian Black Sea Fleet on 5 Septemberwhere it was shelled by destroyers. Sasso and Spencer C. Bloody Winter.
Convoys in world war i -
Princeton NJ: D. Van Nostrand Company. The Victory at Sea. London: John Murray. London: Macdonald. McEvoy and Spencer C. Freddie Barley and David Waters eds. Oxford: Oxford University Press, —70quoted in Abbatiello Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history. Help Learn to edit Community portal Recent melbourbe file.
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Download as PDF Printable version. Italiano Edit links. Blockade Convoys Northern Patrol.